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Pedıatrıc Oncology

Pediatric Oncology


Cancer in kids is rare in general. This suggests that preparing therapies will be complicated for physicians unless they know what has proven more successful for other children. That is why, as part of a clinical trial, over 60 percent of children with cancer are treated. Kids with cancer should be treated at a specialist cancer facility to take advantage of these newer therapies. Doctors at these clinics have ample expertise and access to the newest findings in the care of children with cancer. A pediatric hematologist-oncologist is considered a specialist who specializes in treating children with cancer. If a pediatric cancer center is not close, there are also pediatric doctors in general cancer centers that may be part of the child's care.

Treatment overview

A team of doctors meets for an infant and the families to deliver treatment in several situations. This is considered a squad that is multidisciplinary. For children and their families, pediatric cancer clinics also provide additional counseling resources, such as child development professionals, dietitians, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, and psychologists. There may also be special events and services available to help the child and family cope. The following are explanations of the different types of therapies used for childhood cancer. The medical package for your child usually requires recovery, an important aspect of cancer care, for complications and side effects. Treatment choices and guidelines depend on a variety of variables, including cancer type and stage, potential side effects, and the needs and general wellbeing of the patient. Take the time to learn all the care choices for your child and make sure to ask questions about items that are vague. Speak to your child's doctor about the aims of each therapy and what will be expected of your child during treatment. Such forms of meetings are referred to as "shared decision making." Shared decision-making is where you and your doctors collaborate together to choose therapies that match the interests of the wellbeing of your child. For childhood cancer, joint decision making is especially relevant since there are distinct choices for treatment.


Surgery is the removal of lesions, either cancerous or non-cancerous, and any underlying healthy tissue after surgery. As part of their recovery, many kids with a tumor will need surgery at some stage. A surgical oncologist is a specialist who uses surgery to specialize in treating a tumor. The aim of the procedure is to eliminate the whole tumor and the margin (tissue surrounding the tumor), leaving a negative margin, which ensures that no tumor in the healthy tissue is left behind. There are microscopic tumor cells left following surgery on most pediatric tumors. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other therapies are then likely to be prescribed by physicians. The side effects of surgery can depend on your child's location, age, and tumor type, and whether the tumor has metastasized. Speak to your child's health care provider before surgery about the potential side effects of the actual surgery your child will have.

Treatments using medications

Systemic therapy is the use of medications to suppress cancer cells. This form of treatment is provided via the bloodstream to enter cancer cells in the body. Systemic treatments are normally recommended by a pediatric oncologist. Popular alternatives to systematic therapy involve an intravenous (IV) tube inserted in a vein using a needle or a pill or capsule swallowed (orally). Types of systemic treatment used for pediatric cancer include: • Chemotherapy• Immunotherapy; Both of these treatments is discussed in more detail below. A individual can undergo 1 form of systemic therapy at the same time or a combination of systemic therapy at the same time. They can also be prescribed as part of a recovery package that involves surgery and/or radiation therapy. Chemo-therapy Chemotherapy is the use of medications to kill cancer cells, usually by preventing cancer cells from growing, splitting, and producing more cells. The chemotherapy routine, or timetable, typically consists of a set number of cycles provided over a prescribed period of time. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also known as biologic therapy, is intended to improve the body's normal defences against cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to boost, target, or repair the function of the immune system. Examples in immunotherapy include cancer vaccines, monoclonal and interferon antibodies.

Therapy with Radiation

The application of high-energy x-rays or other particles like photons to kill cancer cells is called radiation therapy. A doctor who specializes in curing cancer by giving radiation therapy is considered a radiation oncologist. Due to the possibility of damage to healthy organs and tissues in the radiation field, and secondary cancers, especially in young children, doctors frequently want to avoid using radiation therapy to treat childhood cancer wherever possible. External-beam radiation, which is radiation provided by a machine outside the body, is the most common form of radiation therapy. It is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy when radiation therapy is provided using implants. In recent years, newer methods of transmitting radiation have been developed.

Bone Marrow Transplant

A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure in which highly specialized cells are replaced by bone marrow which contains cancer. These cells grow into stable bone marrow, called hematopoietic stem cells. Blood-forming cells present both in the circulation and in the bone marrow are hematopoietic stem cells. This process is most generally referred to today as a stem cell transplant rather than a bone marrow transplant. This is because it is usually the stem cells in the blood that are transplanted, not the real tissue in the bone marrow. Physicians will speak with the patient and families about the complications of this operation before suggesting transplantation. Several other considerations, such as the type of cancer, the outcomes of any prior treatment, and the age and overall health of the patient, will also be weighed. Depending on the origins of the replacement blood stem cells, there are 2 forms of stem cell transplantation: allogeneic (ALLO) and autologous (AUTO).

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