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is a scientific discipline that incorporates general concepts (such as wound healing, metabolic and endocrine response to injury) as well as the treatment of systemic and local problems in the body with surgical procedures and has influenced many branches of the surgical and basic medicine in their development.

Surgery is one of the oldest branches of medicine and is focused on the reconstruction of illnesses, accidents, structural deficiencies in the body that cannot be healed by drugs or other therapeutic techniques, or the cutting and turning of the diseased organ into its normal and appropriate shape.

Surgery types are sometimes referred to by the name of the organ or system to which they are associated. In general surgery, goiter (thyroid gland), breast, esophagus (esophagus), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, hernias, liver, gall bladder, bile ducts, endoscopic and laparoscopic surgery are included.

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